Originally founded by the Greeks in the heart of Sicily on the slopes of Monte San Giuliano, Caltanissetta overlooks the Salso River Valley. It is the largest city in this area and is surrounded by small and isolated towns. Till mid 20th century it used to be the world capital for the sulphur-mining industry but today it is known for its agricultural industry.
During the Arab rule of Sicily, Caltanissetta became a fortified settlement and was later expanded from the Normans. Part of this fortress, the Pietra Rossa Castle, is still visible on the edge of the city. While walking through Caltanissetta the testimony of different cultures, that ruled this land throughout the centuries, can be seen in the art and architecture of the city. A must see is the Villa Romana in the outskirts of the town. Just an hour drive away from the city, this Roman Villa is impressive for the quality and quantity of the astonishing roman mosaics.